More adolescents and teens are developing health conditions that may increase their risk of premature cardiovascular disease in adulthood, therefore, early screening, diagnosis and multidisciplinary care are vital. A new survey of cardiovascular care centers in the U.S. and Canada found that there are not enough resources to meet the needs for pediatric preventive cardiology care, and the survey results are detailed in a new American Heart Association science advisory, published in the Association’s journal Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality & Outcomes.
The advisory is of the first to address the status of pediatric preventive cardiology (PPC) programs in the U.S. and Canada and present a roadmap for the future of the field.
It reports that 39% of U.S. youth ages 12-19 are diagnosed as having overweight or obesity, 53% have abnormal lipids, 18% have prediabetes and 15% have elevated blood pressure. Children with these conditions have an increased risk of having a heart attack or stroke by the time they reach their 40s or 50s, according to previous research.
To assess the current state of pediatric preventive cardiology, the advisory writing committee surveyed two groups of health professionals. One survey was for directors of pediatric cardiology divisions at university hospitals; the survey included questions about characteristics of the practice and personal opinions about PPC program needs and logistics. These hospital division programs were classified as small, medium and large based on the number of cardiac surgeries performed annually. The second survey was directed to lead clinicians at PPC programs across the United States and Canada, whether in a university setting or not. They were asked about current practices at the program, including the types of health professionals who are part of the team, therapies provided and future plans. The writing group received and analyzed responses from 53 division directors and 41 clinician leaders.
The survey of pediatric cardiology division directors revealed:
- Dedicated PPC programs are established in 65% of large pediatric cardiology divisions, 61% of medium-sized divisions and 17% of small divisions.
- The majority of respondents valued the programs, particularly to improve public health, manage patient volume and help generate research funding.
- They largely agreed that PPC programs should provide care for children and teens with lipid disorders, high blood pressure, obesity or a family history of premature heart disease.
- When asked about staffing, most directors responded that personnel for a PPC program should include a preventive cardiologist, registered dietician, nurse practitioner or physician’s assistant, and a registered dietitian.
- About half endorsed that a psychologist or behavioral therapist be part of the PPC team, and 3 out of 4 suggested a social worker be included.
- About one-third responded that a genetic counselor, vascular specialist, administrative assistant or research associate should also be on the PPC team.
The survey of PPC lead clinicians revealed:
- Demand exceeds supply, with appointment wait-times of 3 months or longer in one-third of PPC programs.
- While 37% of PPC clinicians were actively trying to build their programs, 34% reported being overwhelmed with referrals/new patient appointments.
- Despite the need for more PPC specialists, training opportunities are limited, with only 2 of 41 programs offering fellowship training.