Scientists find genetic link to clogged arteries

March 31, 2021

A new study from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis has identified a gene – called SVEP1 – that makes a protein that influences the risk of coronary artery disease independent of cholesterol, according to a news release from the university.

High cholesterol is the most commonly understood cause of atherosclerosis, a hardening of the arteries that raises the risk of heart attack and stroke.

But now, scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have identified a gene that likely plays a causal role in coronary artery disease independent of cholesterol levels. The gene also likely has roles in related cardiovascular diseases, including high blood pressure and diabetes.

The study appears in the journal Science Translational Medicine.

Evaluating human genetic data, the researchers found that genetic variation influencing the levels of this protein in the body correlated with the risk of developing plaque in the arteries. Genetically determined high levels of the protein meant higher risk of plaque development and vice versa. They found higher levels of the protein correlated with higher risk of diabetes and higher blood pressure readings.

“Cardiovascular disease remains the most common cause of death worldwide,” said Cardiologist Nathan O. Stitziel, MD, PhD, Associate Professor of Medicine and of Genetics. “A major goal of treatment for cardiovascular disease has appropriately been focused on lowering cholesterol levels. But there must be causes of cardiovascular disease that are not related to cholesterol, or lipids, in the blood. We can decrease cholesterol to very low levels, and some people still harbor residual risk of future coronary artery disease events. We’re trying to understand what else is going on, so we can improve that as well.”

This is not the first nonlipid gene identified that has been implicated in cardiovascular disease. But the exciting aspect of this discovery is that it lends itself better to developing future therapies, according to the investigators.

The researchers further showed that this protein is a complex structural molecule and is manufactured by vascular smooth muscle cells, which are cells in the walls of blood vessels that contract and relax the vasculature. The protein was shown to drive inflammation in the plaques in the artery walls and to make the plaques less stable. Unstable plaque is particularly dangerous because it can break loose, leading to the formation of a blood clot, which can cause heart attack or stroke.

According to Stitziel, other genes previously identified as raising the risk of cardiovascular disease independent of cholesterol appear to have widespread roles in the body and are therefore more likely to have far-reaching undesirable side effects if blocked in an effort to prevent cardiovascular disease.

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